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A

Active area of the matrix.

A device which enables transmitting video signal through HDMI, DVI, VGA or Composite. Different devices have different connectors.

A layer covering the display’s surface which protects it from marks caused by finger-touch.

Protective layer covering the display surface which enhances readability. AG coating reduces reflections from all kind of external sources e.g. bright sunlight. Anti-glare uses diffusion mechanisms. It disperses the reflected image so that the user's eye focuses on the displayed content rather than on the reflected image.

A display that provides information in the form of characters (number and/ or letters).

Protective layer covering the display surface and enhancing its readability. AR coating reduces reflections from all kind of external and internal sources such as bright sunlight or high ambient lightening conditions. Ani-reflective coatings are applied to “bend” the light through each medium, providing broadband reduction of reflection across the visible light spectrum, increasing the total light transmission to as high as 99.5%.

B

A type of integrated circuit in which the housing is situated spherically in the grid. Connectors are usually located on the bottom of the system.

Board with outputs of FFC signals to pin connectors.

Board connecting e.g. two FFC.

C

Unit of luminance. The lumination intensity is measured in candela per square meter (cd/m²).

A screen that reacts to changing electric capacity when touched. Its surface is made of glass, which facilitates cleaning and makes the screen resistant to scratches. In addition, capacitive touch screens are featured with multitouch functionality and better and better handle with water and dirt on the surface.

Technology that significantly shortens the designing process, especially in a situation when user wants to upgrade application from Mono LCM to LCD-TFT. Thanks to Clever System application, such upgrade becomes cheaper (there is a possibility of using cheaper or installed in Mono LCM controller, reducing the amount of required circuits and PCB surface), quicker and more reliable. All this is possible thanks to inbuilt procedures that are launched using commands generated by serial interface. Integrated steering system regulates backlight strength, stores content of displayed frame, facilitates quick and large-scale graphics loading to display’s memory by USB and makes possible generating characters and shapes on screen. Those functions enable to use cheaper microprocessor and prevent from expensive and time-consuming redesigning of existing applications.

A chip that is mounted directly on a circuit board. This method involves an increase of the entire module dimensions, but in return the PCB may contain all external components that are necessary to properly run the display.

New technology of mounting controllers on film that is an updated version of TAB (Tape Automated Bonding) and COG (chip-on-glass) technologies.

A chip technology where a chip is mounted directly on display’s glass. COG displays are thinner and, thanks to their more hermetic construction, they are also more water, dust and shock resistant.

COMs enable to create quickly a ready computer platform that can be easily upgraded by replacing selected module with newer one. At the same time, it is possible to create several variations of baseboards to prepare devices that differ in supported interfaces and derived signals, without a need to differentiate other components of the project.

It is a standard product that needs an individual configuration setting according to available parameters (configuration options) according to customer’s needs.

A non-standard product, designed on the basis of customer needs and his specific guidelines.

D

PCB in set with suitable tapes,cables and software. Thanks to such combination, it is easier to connect the display to another device such as a computer. Using the developer kit enhances the testing and prototyping process.

Type of FSTN matrix with double layer of compensation film. The DFSTN matrix has higher contrast in comparison to FSTN.

Using digital media to present advertisements, information or news. The great advantage of Digital Signage is the ability to remotely and centrally control the entire network of displays, regardless of their number.

Digital input/output in electronic devices.

Abbreviation of double sided adhesive tape.

E

The ability of an electronic device to work properly in defined electromagnetic environment.

An interference in electronic device operation when it is situated near electromagnetic field.

It is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in space by blocking the field with barriers consisting of conductive or magnetic materials. Shielding is typically applied to enclosures (to isolate electrical devices from the 'outer world') and to cables (to isolate wires from the environment through which the cable runs).

MMC memory with controller that is situated in BGA housing.

Displays that imitate the appearance of ink on paper. EPD displays are extremely thin and require power only when the image changes, thus they are perfect solution for applications with static images. Unlike conventional panels that use liquid crystals or OLED cells, EPD panels rely on a phenomenon called electrophoresis (the movement of electrically charged particles in the electric field). EPD matrices are widely used as e-newspapers, e-business cards, e-prices, e-book and more.

A short and rapid electric impulse flowing between two objects that has a different electric potential.

FTDI's innovative graphics solution, featured in FT8XX controllers, which enables simultaneous use of three functions: image, sound and touch, without having to write a separate program, e.g. serves to test the display.

F

FFC labeling system is as follows: FFCxxyyzzz X (xx - raster e.g. 05 is 0.5 mm, 10 mm is 1 mm; yy - pin number, zzz - tape length given in mm e.g. 040 means 40 mm; X - contacts in alternating position. If there is no letter, it means that contacts from both sides are located on the same side)

A pattern of conductive traces bonded on a flexible substrate.

STN matrix with additional compensation film between STN and rear polarizer, which gives higher contrast and better sharpness. This technology is commonly used in many character and graphic LCD panels with a resolution of 320x240 or less.

RGB controller that allows you to use QSPI, SPI and I2C interfaces. The controller’s board has a built-in LED inverter and a unified 20-pin ZIF connector (0.5 mm pitch) for all display sizes. The FT8xx controllers’ family has a built-in Embedded Video Engine (EVE) with graphic widgets to easily create your own application.

G

Structure of the resistive touch panel based on the following components: glass - film - glass.

A phenomenon that occurs when a user looks at the display from one side and when exceeding a certain angle characteristic for a particular display, he notes a sudden change of displayed image colors (gray color starts to dominate).

H

Technology that improves the display parameters when operating in strong sunlight conditions. Prolonged exposure to strong sunlight is associated with excessive heating of the display surface (up to 110 °C). In classic LCDs operating in such conditions, there appear black stains on display surface. Thanks to High Tni LC technology this phenomenon is eliminated.

Computers that work perfectly as an interface devices in all applications where there is a need for technological process control with friendly and aesthetic data presentation. The device is designed on the basis of x86 and ARM processors that guarantee high performance and low power consumption. A wide set of interfaces and mounting methods (including VESA) enables user to implement quickly the final product. HMI users can take advantage of prepared complete operating system sources for Android, Linux and BSP (for Windows CE).

I

In the IPS matrix liquid crystals are arranged parallel to the surface of the screen, resulting in very wide horizontal and vertical viewing angles. IPS panels have better fidelity to reproduced colors. There is no grayscale inversion effect with the popular TN matrix. Also, the decrease in contrast when increasing the viewing angle is much lower.

Touch screens that operate on the basis of infrared technology.

L

LCD displays use the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light by themselves. They use a backlight or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. LCDs may display custom (graphic LCDs) or fixed images (character LCDs). Fixed images have low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, icons(e.g. in a digital clock). Custom images (e.g. in a general-purpose computer display) use the same technology, except that custom images are made up of a large number of small dots (pixels) so the information content can be significantly higher.

A semiconductor electronic light source that emits light when a suitable voltage is applied to the leads.

A sort of technology based on dimming the backlight locally according to currently presented on display content. Getting a black area on Local Dimming displays is affected not only by the lack of light transmission through the LCD-TFT matrix in this area, but also by turning off the backlight under this area.. Such solution allows to receive significantly higher contrast and deeper blackness. An additional advantage of Local Dimming technology is considerably higher energy efficiency.

M

A sort of technology where the main advantage is higher color saturation and significantly more accurate color imitation of shown image (in relation to natural view). MaxRGB technology makes possible obtaining higher than in sRGB or even AdobeRGB standard number of colors, obtaining saturation on the level of 94 – 97% in relation to NTSC D65 standard.

Memory card being an alternative for SD card.

Mounting holes being a part of a display that are installed for easier device’s installation. The holes may be in a form of mounting ears or gaps in display.

N

An outdated non-SI unit of luminance, 1 nt = 1 cd/m2.

O

A special film on the surface of the screen that reducesthe gray scale inversion effect. Thanks to O-film, the display is readable from almost every angle.

A light-emitting diode in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an applied voltage. OLED panels do not require additional backlight thus they aree very thin (even below 1 mm). It is possible to achieve true black on the displayed content, much higher contrast and significantly lower power consumption. In addition, unlike LCD displays, they have unlimited viewing angles and ultra-fast matrix response time.

Bonding of the touch panel with the display via transparent, UV light hardened LOCA glue (wet bonding) or OCA foil (dry bonding). Optical bonding reduces the reflections between the touch screen and the display what significantly improves optical parameters of displayed image (deeper contrast, higher brightness, readability in high light conditions).

P

Assembling the memory directly on the processor.

It is currently the most cutting edge technology regarding capacitive touch screens construction. Application of PCAP in the touch screen makes possible to operate multi-touch functionality – tracking from 1 to 10 touch points (or more) at the same time, depending on controller configuration. PCAP provides very high precision and much higher resistance to various types of errors caused by e.g. dirt on the screen. Depending on the controller configuration, the PCAP offers possibility to add new features such as increased electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), gloved touch and proper operation despite the presence of water on the surface.

R

Touch screen that operates using not only touch (like in case of capacitive screens) but also pressure power. Thanks to such solution, it is less susceptible to noise and water and widely used wherever external factors may interfere displays work, e.g. in marine industry, transportation or mining. Automatic pressure detection makes possible changing the action depending on time and/or power of touch pressure, e.g. varying drawn lines thickness.

Rear Sided Adhesive Tape, a term interchangeably used with DSA.

S

Several connected modules. The modules are located one on top of each other, hence the name ‘sandwich’.

Computers that is a combine high-scale integration and compact size. Mini PCs have been created as a response to the need of single-chip microcontrollers into more advanced and flexible solutions that use existing operating systems. Mini PCs have been created as a response to the need for single-chip applications and finally evolved to more advanced, flexible and scalable solutions that use existing operating systems. Apart from the possibility of using popular operating systems, they are based on well-known PC architecture, support standard serial interfaces and enable using graphics and ready-made tools.

Memory card standard developed by Panasonic, SanDisk and Toshiba Co.

An overlay on prototype board.

A complete processor modules that are mainly based on ARM processors Thanks to additional RAM and supply system, they are an interesting alternative to x86 SBC’s (Single Board Computers) and for self-made projects. SOM modules reduce the design and testing costs and maintain low production costs. Available motherboards, wide documentation and source code allow users to quickly start operating with selected module. Motherboards are also perfect for building final solutions, as they guarantee a fast product’s launching on the market.

SSD1963 controller has an inbuilt memory with capacity of 1215 kB that facilitates support of TFT displays with maximum resolution of 864x480 pixels. Thanks to using unified 36-pin connector, user can apply different display sizes. Additionally, controller is equipped with parallel interface and inbuilt LED converter.

Stiffener at the end of FPC. Thanks to using the stiffener, connecting the display or touch screen is easier and safer.

Type of monochromatic passive LCD matrix. Displays with STN matrix consume less Energy and are cheaper than TFT LCD screens. However, there are some disadvantages such as much lower image quality and slower response time in comparison to TFT displays.

T

Process of placing bare chips on printed circuit board (PCB). First, they are attached to polyamide film and then the film is moved to the target location, the leads are cut and soldered to PCB and secured by epoxy or plastic resin.

Temperature compensation prevents from occurring problems related to contrast changes that are caused by ambient temperature fluctuations. Usage of this technology allows to automatically heighten the contrast when temperature is falling and lower it when temperature is rising.

Special kind of transistor, mainly used in active matrix color LCDs. TFT-controlled panels provide much better image quality than other LCD solutions (e.g. STN).

One of the first technologies by which liquid crystals have found practical use in information visualization. TN matrices are cheap but they have relativelypoor viewing angles. Other disadvantages are: color instability in time, lack of homogeneity on the entire panel surface and irregular backlit.

U

A type of display that was designed as a combination of TFT LCD display, a multi-touch capacitive screen and modern decorative glass. The special feature of this series is enabling the customer to widely customize the display, so that the final product is a unique solution.

V

Type of LCD technology in which liquid crystals naturally place themselves vertically to the glass substrate. When the LCD panel is not connected to power source, liquid crystals remain perpendicular to the substrate. When the voltage is applied, liquid crystals move to an inclined position allowing the light to pass. Optical parameters of VATN displays are significantly higher than STN, FSTN and DFSTN. Much higher contrast, deeper blackness and wider viewing angles improve the display’s appearance and functionality. Moreover, there is eliminated gray scale inversion effect. VATN’s limitation is the maximum 1/16 multiplexing, which in practice means that in this technology it is not possible to produce graphical displays with a vertical resolution of more than 16 pixels. This technology mainly applies to icon and alphanumeric displays.

Z

A kind of connector that does not require using force. It is used most commonly for connecting FPC and FFC to PCB.